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Anaesthesiology: Referencing

What is referencing?

Referencing is a practice of acknowledging other peoples works, ideas, sources used in a paper, assignment, report and conference papers in academic writing. Direct quotations, facts and figures, tables and images, from published as well as unpublished works need to be referenced, as do ideas and theories that originate elsewhere

What is a referencing style?

A referencing style refers to the way in which details about a reference are written down. There is no universal style: every discipline and journal has its preferred style.

Medical sciences tend to use the Vancouver or APA style. Guides to these styles are presented below.

APA style

American Psychological Association (APA) style is an academic format specified in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, a style guide that offers academic authors guidance on various subjects for the submission of papers to the publications of APA.


EndNote is just one of many electronic bibliographic management packages available and is favoured by the sciences. The UKZN license allows staff and students to download EndNote onto personal computers and is available in all lans. EndNote allows the creation of a library of references which can be formatted according to a range of styles and references can be inserted into Word documents.

The most current version is EndNote X7. The Library offers training in the basics of EndNote.

EndNote Video


RefWorks is an online package available from the Databases A-Z list on the Library's website. Users need to register.


Turnitin is an internet based tool used to check and detect plagiarism in an essay or any kind of academic related document. Its a licensed based software which universities and school obtain through subscription. Students need to register:


For more information and assistance please contact Hilary      Ph: 031 260 2038/2472

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