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Ophthalmology: Referencing

What is referencing?

Referencing is the practice of acknowledging other peoples works, ideas, sources used in a paper, assignment, report and conference papers in academic writing. Direct quotations, facts and figures, tables and images, from published as well as unpublished works need to be referenced, as do ideas and theories that originate elsewhere.

APA style

American Psychological Association (APA) style is an academic format specified in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, a style guide that offers academic authors guidance on various subjects for the submission of papers to the publications of APA.

APA style guides produced by UKZN Library for the 6th edition


EndNote is a package for creating a library of references, adding references to a document and producing a formatted bibliography. UKZN has a license for the desktop software which may also be downloaded onto private pcs by bona fide students and staff members. The document below provides download instructions as well as basic instructions on how to use EndNote.

EndNote video


Refworks is an online programme for creating and managing a library of references. It is accessible from the Databases A-Z list on the Library's website. Users need to register.


Turnitin is an internet based tool used to check and detect plagiarism in an essay or any kind of academic related document. It is licensed based software which universities and schools obtain through subscription. Go to to register.


For more information and assistance please contact Hilary Reynolds,031 260 2038/2472


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